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Terça-feira, 21 de Outubro de 2008

Pharmaceutical Market: the changing time and the challenge of rethinking the approach to the Market

 

If we give back a look to the past 10 years, the number of Pharmaceutical Sales Representative as grown significantly (double) but the productivity declined. Something is not adding up and needs to be reviewed getting to the bottom of the issue. The traditional approach to the Market starts form the assumption: to more calls, more Share of Voice, to more sales. In this way a lot of Pharmaceutical Companies build up more lines of Sales Representative promoting the same product to same physicians. The growing commercial impact of the Pharmaceutical Companies has generated a growing “intolerance” of the physicians in regard of the Sales Representative, with the consequence of a radical change in the availability and relationship to Sales Representative. Sometimes today a visit to physician consists of sample or brand remainder delivery! Why? Surely, it is because they don’t see any value in the interaction with Sales Rep. It appears that the “arms race” to increased commercial impact was offset by lower quality. Again, in many Countries, today, the physician has not the power to make prescribing decisions without the input from other stakeholders.
 It’s evident that we need the rethink the actual “product-centric” approach to the Market, focused only on efficiency of the Sales Force, to a “customer-centric” one, focused even on effectiveness of the Sales Force. The Sales Rep has to rebuilt up the relationship with customers, these have to recognize Sales Rep like professional able to offer added value to customers.
 How?The actual sales model doesn’t answer question like:
Has the physician understood the benefits offered to him or his patients by prescribing the promoted product?
Does the product offered satisfy a need or a goal of the physician?
Is the product being offered relevant to physician’s practice? Sometimes Rep calls on physicians they do not even prescribe more in the category the rep is calling, only because the targeting tools are suggesting them like high potential customers.
Are the Sales Reps sending the message with the appropriate influencing behaviour? There is an increasing trend of sample delivery without seeing the physician involved. Good relationship between Sales Rep and physicians are vital and must be gained by adequate feedbacks during the call.
Sales effectiveness is focused on productivity, looking at the impact of behaviours of prescribing, impact of each interaction, content requirements of each interaction for improved financial return from the Sales activity.
In this way a commitment to put the customer at the centre of every decision is a must today. The willingness to learn and to adapt the professionalism to the need of the Market is an imperative today because the Companies unable or unwilling to change may find themselves left behind.  
By a friend: Michael Cristino - International Sales Force Advisor from a Multinational Pharmaceutical Company
publicado por Ana Maria Abreu às 23:41
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Product Life Cycle Management - New approach

 

Lyfe cicle is a fundamental tool that we use has a rational to ensure our decisions. Products life cycle is like a person lyfe cicle: there are some physical activities that we can not do with 85 years old (like run a marathon), but the maturity that we achieved allow us to have, for eg. balanced decisions, solid experience to give to younger people. So there are good and bad consequences of age. Like a product life cycle, The conditions in which a product is sold changes over time and must be managed as it moves through its succession of stages. It is claimed that every product has a life cycle. It is launched, it grows, and at some point, may die. Thus, the life cycle may be useful as a description, but not as a predictor; and usually should be firmly under the control of the marketer. The important point is that in many markets the product or brand life cycle is significantly longer than the planning cycle of the organizations involved. Thus, it offers little practical value for most marketers.

And you can look for the life cycle management in different aspects, such as who is expected to be your customers during each stage, wich are the implications of each stage on the characteristics of the market and also in the strategy of the marketing mix. We must not forget that marketing management itself can alter the shape and duration of a brand's life cycle, according to the strategic objectives of the company.
In the introduction stage the cost is high, sales volume are low, there is no/little competition, customers have to be prompted to try the product, and probably only 3% of the potential market customers will be innovative enough to try the product. Our marketing objectives must be to create awareness of our brand.
In the development stage costs are reduced due to economies of scale, sales volume increases significantly and profitability also. There is public awareness, and competition begins to increase with a few new players in establishing market . You can use a price strategy to maximize market share without harm your profit expected.
Your marketing objectives must be to strengthen interest in your product and increase quickly your market share.
In the Maturity stage costs are very low as you are well established in market & no need for publicity. You achieve sales volume peaks, there is an increase in competitive offerings and prices tend to drop due to the proliferation of competing products. Your marketing objectives should align with brand differentiation, feature diversification, as each player seeks to differentiate from competition with "how much product" is offered . Also the industrial profits go down. In this stage we should try to maintain our market share.

Lyfe cicle is a fundamental tool that we use has a rational to ensure our decisions. Products life cycle is like a person lyfe cicle: there are some physical activities that we can not do with 85 years old (like run a marathon), but the maturity that we achieved allow us to have, for eg. balanced decisions, solid experience to give to younger people. So there are good and bad consequences of age. Like a product life cycle, The conditions in which a product is sold changes over time and must be managed as it moves through its succession of stages. It is claimed that every product has a life cycle. It is launched, it grows, and at some point, may die. Thus, the life cycle may be useful as a description, but not as a predictor; and usually should be firmly under the control of the marketer. The important point is that in many markets the product or brand life cycle is significantly longer than the planning cycle of the organizations involved. Thus, it offers little practical value for most marketers.

And you can look for the life cycle management in different aspects, such as who is expected to be your customers during each stage, wich are the implications of each stage on the characteristics of the market and also in the strategy of the marketing mix. We must not forget that marketing management itself can alter the shape and duration of a brand's life cycle, according to the strategic objectives of the company.

In the introduction stage the cost is high, sales volume are low, there is no/little competition, customers have to be prompted to try the product, and probably only 3% of the potential market customers will be innovative enough to try the product. Our marketing objectives must be to create awareness of our brand.
In the development stage costs are reduced due to economies of scale, sales volume increases significantly and profitability also. There is public awareness, and competition begins to increase with a few new players in establishing market . You can use a price strategy to maximize market share without harm your profit expected.

Your marketing objectives must be to strengthen interest in your product and increase quickly your market share.
In the Maturity stage costs are very low as you are well established in market & no need for publicity. You achieve sales volume peaks, there is an increase in competitive offerings and prices tend to drop due to the proliferation of competing products. Your marketing objectives should align with brand differentiation, feature diversification, as each player seeks to differentiate from competition with "how much product" is offered . Also the industrial profits go down. In this stage we should try to maintain our market share.

In decline stage, the less attractive for marketeers but most interesting for finance departments because costs become counter-optimal (the best in profit is usually the maturity stage), sales volume decline or stabilize ; prices and profitability diminish, and profit becomes more a challenge of production/distribution efficiency than increased sales. The laggard customer tends to start to buy the product in this stage, so is very usefull to identify his needs and to communicate just for him. Your marketing objectives should be to reduce costs and to prepare the withdraw.
So, as you can see is just like a person life where you have to adapt to each stage where your product is. Very interesting is to evaluate the sales force remuneration during each stage, because your objectives managing their motivation changes during each step of the way. For instance, when you launch a product your variable part of the income of the sales force should be very high, to motivate people to achieve quickly a stronger position in the market.

In the decline stage because you don´t expect any ambition from your sales force with this product, an probably they are focused on other products, your remuneration should be predominantly fixed.
Even though Life Cycle Management validity is questionable, it can offer a useful 'model' for managers to keep at the back of their mind. Indeed, if their products are in the introductory or growth phases, or in that of decline, it perhaps should be at the front of their mind; for the predominant features of these phases may be those revolving around such life and death.
 

Nelson Ferreira Pires

 

 

 
publicado por Ana Maria Abreu às 23:40
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Domingo, 12 de Outubro de 2008

Management : process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through-with other people

 

The management processes are based in a simple rule: the POLC rule – Planning, Organizing, Leading and Control, interrelated and simultaneously.
Planning is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan; and the mental process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired future on some scale (like for example the tactical plan development).
Organizing is the act of rearranging elements following one or more rules (like for example, rearranging our sales reps territories).
Leading is the ability "to get people to follow voluntarily“, affecting the human behavior so as to accomplish a mission designated by the leader (like for example, coaching a sales representative).
 
Control in management means setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action. So control is a foreseeing action whereas earlier concept of control was used only when errors were detected (like for example, define and check regularly the Key Performance Indicators –KPIs- previously defined; and do something is something has a big chance of going wrong).
According to different managerial levels, the importance of each process changes, from a more tactical approach, more near to the field; to a more strategic approach (going up in the scale of managers), related to plan and organize, and less related to the operations (what doesn´t means far from the business, on the contrary). Top-level managers require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills, they have to be very aware of external factors such as markets, and their decisions are generally long-term nature, they are
responsible for strategic decisions. Middle management have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks. They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by top-level management.
First line managers ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out. Their decisions are generally short-term ones. In conclusion, Managers should spend their time , in each process (POLC), according to his level. We can not have a top manager thinking about details of the organization…
 
 
publicado por Ana Maria Abreu às 23:59
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How to make a more efficiente SWOT (Published in Sal&Mar Newsletter - Author Nelson Pires)

 

SWOT analysis is a tool used to make the situation analysis (analysis of the environment, internal and external) for the marketing plan, being used as a basis for management and strategic planning of a corporation or company, but may, due to its simplicity, be used for any type of scenario analysis. This analysis of scenario is divided into internal environment (forces and weaknesses) and external environment (opportunities and threats). The strengths and weaknesses are determined by the current position of the company and are related, almost always, to the internal factors. Regarding the opportunities and threats, these are expectations of the future and are related to external factors. The internal environment can be controlled by the leaders of the company, since it is the result of the strategies of action defined by the members of the organization. Thus, during the analysis, when noticed a strength, it must be stressed the most, and when noticed a weak point, the organization must act to control it or at least minimize its effect. The external environment is totally outside the control of the organization. But in spite of being unable to control it, the company must know it and monitor it frequently, in order to seize the opportunities and avoid the threats. Avoid threats is not always possible, however you can make a plan for addressing them, minimizing its effects.
(Source Wikipedia, adapted)
Remember that SWOT should always be specific. You should avoid grey areas. Always apply SWOT in relation to your competition i.e. better than or worse than your competition. Keep your SWOT short and simple. Avoid complexity and over analysis, and remember that the SWOT is not a “political” tool ( to manage your image inside the company, being nice to someone), so you should always try to be realistic. 
Once you decided wich are the factors to include in each criteria, give the SWOT analysis some strategic meaning i.e. you can begin to select those factors that will most greatly influence your marketing strategy: a mix of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Essentially you rank them highest to lowest (“weight” in figure 1), and then prioritize those with the highest rank. So, weight the factors and rank them. One way would be to use percentages e.g. opportunity A = 10%, opportunity B = 70%, and opportunity C = 20% (they total 100%).
After, you should score how your company or product, faces each factor defined and weighted. You can use a score from 1 (very negative) to 5 (very positive) (3 means without influence) (“Evaluation” in figure 1). Now you are rating your position in each factor evaluated, and more over ypu are rating your competitive position.
If you want to be more effective, you can do your SWOT for each segment that you defined essential for your business.

 

Now you have your weighted SWOT finished. This is a method for explicitly considering the different factors in a decision. By multiplying the score by the weight and summing up for each option, you can get an overall score that takes into account each options and define wich are the most relevant factors to evaluate in each of the S.W.O.T. Criteria.
Because you are in the “situation analysis”, you must define the objectives and the actions based on the SWOT quantified and weighted analysis, mainly the most relevant and important. Remember that strategic planning may be characterized as a systematic effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what a business organization is, what it does, and why it does it. The objective of strategic planning is to develop a map by which to manage an organization's positioning. So a SWOT analysis must have a consequence. You are defining where you and your company are and where you and your company want to go!

 

Remember also that a company doesn't need to pursue an opportunity that is not particularly attractive to it, nor does it need to pursue an opportunity for which it does not possess the requisite. Ultimately it is about making decisions, and it is only for that reason that we managers are paid ... To take correct decisions!!!
Nelson Ferreira Pires (Sal&Mar)
publicado por Ana Maria Abreu às 23:56
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Deus, o Direito e os Rolling Stones

 

Deus, o Direito e os Rolling Stones
 

 

Inspirado nas aulas de Filosofia do Direito do Mestre Joaquim Rogério (Univ. Moderna)

 
Nunca podemos ter tudo o que ambicionamos, logo nunca poderemos ser felizes. Não é fácil ser-se louco!
Por vezes o conceito de felicidade resume-se a um beijo doce, outras vezes á conquista do mundo.
Agora é que deve estar mesmo a interrogar-se o que é que Deus, o Direito e os Rolling Stones têm em comum? E que provavelmente entrou no blog errado, entre tantos bons blogs que existem tinha logo que escolher este!
Permita-me que explique…
“Ubi societas, ibi ius” – Onde há sociedade há direito ! Irei fazer uma reflexão de como estas 3 instituições (cada uma com a sua importância e área de intervenção) se entrecruzaram ao longo dos tempos e se influenciaram reciprocamente, dando novas dimensões ao ser humano.
O direito visa a prossecução da justiça e dos direitos humanos.
 
Nos tempos antigos (até ao sec VII a.c.) a “traditio” mantém o equilíbrio e o direito tinha a ver com ordem e equilíbrio. O saber era narrativo e assente nos mitos, numa sociedade estratificada e fechada. Os sacerdotes juristas administravam a justiça pois apenas eles entendiam o funcionamento do equilíbrio da natureza, do cosmos. O universo tinha 3 andares – o mundo dos mortos, o nosso mundo e o mundo dos deuses (ou deus, consoante a religião monoteísta ou politeísta). A ordem, significa cada um no seu lugar e o direito em si é quando cada um está no seu lugar (cosmo = ordem). Não há nada mais perturbador que a desordem (poderia ser-se excluído da cidade se alguém se portasse de forma não previsível). A justiça significava estar em ordem. Os sacerdotes interpretavam o universo, através dos deuses. A natureza mudava mas o número era imutável. Como disse, o saber era narrativo e a jurisdição era mágica, logo do ponto de vista do direito não poderia haver instrução, contraditório, debate. As tradições eram divinas e acreditavam que estavam de acordo com as leis imutáveis do cosmo. Os sacerdotes decidiam o que era certo ou errado.
A partir do sec. VII a.c., na Grécia antiga evolui-se de um saber narrativo assente no mito para um saber racional assente na argumentação. Na Atenas antiga os sofistas começam a pôr em causa a tradição e harmonia, não existem absolutos, no mundo só há mudança. A justiça é criada e construída, logo passível de debate. As pessoas são dotadas de razão, de discurso (logo). No entanto, continuamos a ter um mundo estratificado (a democracia era apenas para 10% dos cidadãos). Platão pensava que o governo da polis deveria ser dos filósofos, pois apenas estes usariam a razão (ao contrario dos guerreiros e dos cidadãos). A justiça tem ainda a ver com a ordem e o cosmos, a diferença está na administração da justiça (logos), podendo portanto existir debate, contraditório, testemunhas, entre outras. Analise-se o teatro greco-romano em que os actores usam máscaras (persona); cada um com o seu papel social (se tiro a máscara despersonalizo-me), pois é a sociedade que me dá a minha identidade. O individuo não tem parte, a não ser no seu papel na sociedade (o carpinteiro, o escravo ou o juiz). A dignidade da persona está na sua máscara. Quem muda de máscara está a perturbar a ordem, são os radicais, com ideias novas.
 
O Cristianismo traz o elemento da democratização da revelação, esta não é exclusiva dos sacerdotes (também os judeus a tinham já, pela existência dos profetas), embora continue a existir uma divisão entre o clero e os leigos. Ao contrário do pensamento cosmológico (em que a verdade está na natureza), o Cristianismo encontra um ponto fixo fora do cosmos e fora da natureza – Deus. A justiça percebe-se pela natureza mas também através da Bíblia e posteriormente através das instruções papais emanadas dos concílios. Mesmo assim, cada um tinha o seu papel e o seu lugar; a natureza guardava os segredos e apenas através da contemplação seria possível perceber a natureza, que seria complementada através da lei eterna, da lei divina.
 
Posteriormente, na idade média, a sociedade continua estratificada – a nobreza, o clero e o povo. Continuamos no domínio do equilíbrio, da previsibilidade. A terra como o centro do universo (do ponto de vista científico), na teoria geocêntrica. A terra dá-se ao luxo de ter o seu próprio sol. E evoluímos da teoria geocêntrica para a teoria heliocêntrica, que nos mostra um cosmos muito maior, em que o universo se expande. No entanto, a física de Newton acreditava num universo mecânico de causa-efeito; num supremo arquitecto que determinava as leis do universo.
 
A invenção da imprensa escrita gerou uma das maiores revoluções de todos os tempos. Antes desta, as histórias passavam de geração em geração, criando mitos. A histórias passavam-se em comunidade e sabiam-se em comunidade. A invenção da escrita traz a leitura privada (o eu e a reflexão interior), enquanto antes liam em conjunto e debatiam de imediato. Da comunidade emerge o individuo e este emancipou-se da humanidade.
 
Com o aperfeiçoamento da tecnologia e o avanço das ciências permitiu a manipulação da natureza (deixou de ser sagrada), e o homem entra em choque com a natureza. Ora se o direito está inscrito na natureza (quer seja criado por Deus ou não), ele deve ser descoberto. Mas se o individuo pode manipular a natureza, pode então criar o direito. Surge a Inventio – inovar por meio da sua vontade, e as teorias contratualistas que servem de matriz á sociedade contemporânea. O homem emancipa-se pela razão, embora não totalmente, devido ao conceito de causa-efeito oriundo da física.
 
Rousseau teorizou que o individuo está antes de tudo, tendo este criado um contrato cujo centro seria o sujeito abstracto estado no qual nos espelhamos. A prevalência do estaod, do eu social, esse corpo místico. Com esta concepção transpersonalista justificam-se ditaduras em que a razão do estado a tudo se sobrepõe, inclusive ao individuo que lhe deu forma.
 
O sec. XX traz consigo a confiança no progresso da ciência; e em lugar desta idade modernidade proporcionar harmonia e progressso, assistiram-se a 2 grandes guerras. O cientismo assume neste período o papel fulcral. Assiste-se a uma revolução na ciência, com Einstein e com Eisenberg. Este último descobre que no plano metafísico nem todos os efeitos têm causa, alguns são espontâneos. Desta forma, os filósofos revoltam-se contra a arrogância do racionalismo, contra a obrigatoriedade de previsão de tudo em leis (o código napoleónico era a base do direito). Os românticos (filósofos existencialistas) valorizam a espontaneidade, a subjectividade.
 
Actualmente, aceitou-se a incerteza, passando de um sistema fechado para um sistema aberto. A ordem e certeza entram em crise, os pontos fixos não existem. Da teoria geocêntrica passámos para a heliocêntrica e finalmente para um mundo sem centro ou em que os centros são os pontos de vista de cada um. Os equilíbrios são precários e instáveis e algumas questões dominam a discussão : Qual o papel da comunidade e do individuo? O direito não tem de emanar apenas do legislador, mas pode e deve emanar das comunidades, da jurisprudência e da doutrina, os tribunais dão lugar aos arbitrais (com decisões aplicadas ao caso concreto); colocando aqui em relevância o papel das fontes do direito. Surge a consciência crítica e moral e a possibilidade de haver responsabilidade ( ou utilizando um termo mais antigo – imputabilidade – Spondere). Antigamente o destino geria a vida de tudo e todos, actualmente o arbítrio possibilita a escolha.
 
A pessoa humana, não a persona da concepção da idade greco-romana mas o individuo da nossa era , outrora o centro da reflexão deu lugar á importância do meu eu na sua relação com os outros, na relação entre pessoas reais e concretas, no respeito e diálogo pelas diferenças. Como em todas as teorias a aceitação pela diferença arrasta consigo a própria extinção do conceito. Imaginemos que pela aceitação das diferenças, aceitamos o dogma de que não podemos aceitar a diferença? Como consequência este axioma anula o anterior.
 
Ou ainda a persona como cidadão, e o direito a alicerçar-se na cidadania ( o direito a ter direitos ).
 
A minha concepção de pessoa alicerça-se num misto de vários pensamentos, que apelido de transpersonalismo de cidadania. O individuo está antes de tudo, tendo criado um contrato cujo foco é uma figura abstracta que a todos obriga – a cidadania, o direito a ter direitos; bem como a consciência da existência e do respeito dos meus e dos direitos dos outros. O eu pessoal, o individuo é único e irrepetível, mas por esse motivo mesmo não pode haver mais cidadãos que outros. A minha consciência dos meus direitos e dos outros, empurra-me a respeitar a individualidade dos indíviduos .
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publicado por Ana Maria Abreu às 23:44
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